Chapter 4 Demand and Supply

A more concise One-Page Test Review of Chapter 4 may help with exams.  

Updated 9/8/17

I. The Marketplace 
II. Demand 4 Videos
III. Supply
IV. Equilibrium 1 video
V. Ceilings and Floors
1 videos
VI. Changes in Supply & Demand Videos
 2 videos  
VII. Valuing Bonds 1 video
VIII. Deportation of many illegal immigrants and the minimum wage?
XI. Political Economy Book Summaries
XII. Free Economics Books

Quick Notes Economic Reviews is is for those pressed for time.
I. The marketplace
     A. A market is defined as an institution or mechanism which promotes trade by 
          bringing together buyers (demanders) and sellers ( suppliers).
     B. Replaced barter1 which is the direct exchange of goods.
     C. A modern market brings money and prices into the circular flow of goods.
     D. Tom Sloan Cartoon Supply and Demand

byte cartoon 22  lead to gold (1)

II. Demand is willingness to buy.

      A. Demand is a schedule of the amounts of goods and services consumers
           are willing and able to buy at a set of prices.
      B. Total demand is the horizontal summation video of individual demand.
      C. Law of demand:: price and quantity are inversely related.
           1. As price goes up, quantity demanded goes down.
           2. As price goes down, quantity demanded goes up.


Image result for Supply and Demand cartoons

Political Cartoons Analyze Supply and Demand




Demand Schedule


1   2   3   4  5

5   4   3   2  1


 E. More is bought as price drops because of the Income and Substitution Effects.
          1. Income Effect: as the price of a good drops, consumers feel richer and buy more.
          2. Substitution Effect: as the price of a good drops, it becomes cheaper relative
              to other goods and consumers buy more.
          3. Income and Substitution Effects
          4. Examples
Example #1 5 min. Video
          5. Example #2
"Why hasn't economic progress lowered work hours more?" Tyler Cowen, Hayek Lecture Series  42 min. video
          6. Optional
               a) Indifference Curves and Budget Lines Video 11 minutes
               b) Graphic Analysis using budget lines and indifference goods  Video
 23 minutes  
      F. What determines demand   
           1. Tastes or preferences of consumers
           2. Number of consumers
           3. Incomes of consumers
               a. normal (superior) goods such as steak and vacations - more is purchased as income increases. 
               b. inferior goods such as bread and hamburger - less is purchased as income increases.
           4. Consumer expectations
           5. Price of related goods
               a. Substitutes are goods that compete with each other such as hot dogs and hamburgers.
                   If the price of a good increases, the demand for its substitutes will increase.
               b. Complements are goods that are purchased together like hot dogs and rolls.
                   If the price of a good increases, the demand for its complement will decrease.
          6. "Ceteris Paribus" is Latin for all other variables remain same.. So one variable changed at a time.
G. Changes (shifts) in Demand
  1. A decrease in demand shifts the demand curve to the left
         2. An increase in demand shifts the demand curve to the right

Note: Increase is to the right 
because the x-axis increases
to the right.


   H. Explorations in Economic Demand by Kim Sosin, Department of Economics
    of the University of Omaha
has good examples.
I.  Demand and Supply Quiz


III. Supply is willingness to sell
       A. Supply is a schedule of the amounts of goods or services producers are willing and able to sell at a set of prices.
       B. Law of supply: price and quantity supplied are directly related because price and expected profit are directly related
           1. As price goes up, quantity supplied goes up
           2. As price goes down, quantity supplied goes down
       C. Supply schedule

   Price       5  4   3   2  1
   Quantity   1  2   3   4  5




        D. What determines supply
             1. Product costs as affected by
                 a. Technology
                 b. Resource prices
                 c. Government involvement with taxes and subsidies
            2. Price of related goods
                 a. If 2 goods are substitutes, price up for one will increase supply of the other
                     as companies see more potential profit
                 b. Example price of gasoline up, supply of alternative fuels increases
        E. An increase in supply shifts the supply curve to the right
        F. Explorations in Economic Supply from
Dr. Kim Sosin of the University of Omaha has good examples.

Image result for Demand and Supply cartoons

IV. Equilibrium is where suppliers and demanders agree on price and quantity
      as depicted by the intersection of their supply and demand curves. 
      A. If the price is too high, a surplus results and price must be lowered as when
           the world economic slowdown in 1999 required lowering price to work down supply. 
      B. If the price is too low, a shortage results. This happens with toys every Christmas i.e.
           Cabbage Patch Dolls
      C. If they can not agree, as happened with Beta videotape machines, then the curves do
           not intersect and the goods are not sold.  

Image result for Supply and Demand cartoons

       D. Disequilibrium, Surplus, and Shortage video
       E. Rationing function of price
           1. When competitive forces of supply and demand result in an equilibrium,
               a rationing function of goods produce to consumers has occurred.
           2. Competition has made it an efficient allocation of resources.


V. Government imposed price ceilings and floors
      A. A price ceiling keeps prices from rising (rent control) helping renters but often 
           resulting in a shortage of housing as investors seek higher returns elsewhere.
      B. A price floor keeps prices from falling (farm price supports) helps farmers 
           though a surplus often results as more of supported crops are produced.
      C. Econ Concepts in 60 Seconds Video on Government Price Controls


VI. Changes in supply and demand affect equilibrium
A. Econ Concepts in 60 Second Video on Double Shifts in Supply and Demand
       B Econ Concepts in 60 Seconds Video on Shifting Supply and Demand
   C. Another View
         D up and S up equally

         D up causes 
         P up
and Q up

         S up causes 
         P down
and Q up

         Result is 
         P same
and Q up

D up and S 
down equally  

D up causes 
P up
and Q up 

S down causes 
P up
and Q down 

Result is 
P up
and Q same

       D down and S up equally

      D down causes
      P down and Q down

      S up causes 
      P down
and Q up

      Result is
      P down and Q same
D down and S  
down equally 

D down causes 
P down
and Q down 

S down causes 
P up
and Q down 

Result is 
P same
and Q down

   D. View a dynamic model of Changes in Supply, Demand and Market Equilibrium
     by Dennis Kaufman University of Wisconsin-Parkside.

  E. Unequal Shifts in Demand and Supply

                            D up and S up more

D up and S down more


More Excellent Supply/Demand Practice from

VII. Valuing Bonds Using Supply and Demand
1. A bond is a promise to pay over time.
       2. Suppose you buy a twenty year, $10,000 bond paying 5% per year at face value
            of $10,000. Face value is called par value.
            a) A few years go by and you need money and one choice is to sell the bond.
            b) If the interest rates on a bond goes down, people will be very anxious to buy, 
                 demand will be high pushing price up and your will receive more than $10,000.
            c) If rate shave gone down, no one will give you $10,000, demand will be low, 
                 so if you need the money, it will sell for less, below par.
            d) You can hold for twenty years and receive par value.
       3. Therefore, interest rates and bond values (prices) go in the opposite direction, 
            if interest rates down, old bond price up because they are at the old higher rate.
       4. This is called the interest rate risk for bonds. Other risks have to do with issuer 
            default and  monetary inflation.
       5. Market Value of Issued Bond Kahn  Video from Khan Academy
       6.  calculates the new bond value when interest rate drops.
VIII. How would the deportation of many illegal immigrants affect the minimum  wage?


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