II. Kinked Demand
III. Collusive Pricing (OPEC)
IV. Price Leadership
Analysis of Oligopoly
VI Restrictive vs. Progressive oligopolies
VII. Readings, Audios, Videos
VIII. Game Theory
Part II Product and Factor Markets
introduces these markets
I. Oligopoly Defines
A. An oligopoly market exists when barriers to entry result in a few producers.
1. Products may be homogeneous or differentiated.
2. Examples include many industrial products such as steel and consumer goods like soda.
3. Automobile, steel, game consoles and other oligopolistic industries lost monopoly power
because of the foreign invasion beginning in the 1970's.
a. Eventually American companies became more competitive.
b. The price was lower real wages for manufacturing workers.
c. The oligopolistic nature of the video game consol market
4. Concentration ratios measure the amount of total output controlled by a few firms.
a. eight-firm concentration ratio - Amosweb is Economics ..
b. four-firm concentration ratio -Amosweb
II. Kinked demand
A. Describes a situation where a strong interdependency exists among firms within an industry
B. A firm's demand curve tends to be elastic above equilibrium price as price increases
are not followed by competitors. If they do follow, industry supply has changed.
C. A firm's demand curve tends to be inelastic below equilibrium price as price decreases
must be followed by competing firms. If competitors do not follow, a monopoly situation
could be developing.
D. This interdependency of pricing is studied with game theory models where players
react to possible pricing situations in a similar manner to the strategy of people
playing chess or poker.
E. Econ Concepts in 60 Seconds: Kinked Demand Curve
F. Kinked demand curve theory from You Tube
G. Need more, try Kinked Demand from Amos Web.
Unit II. Review Interdependency of firms results in demand that is elastic at high prices and inelastic at low prices
III. Collusive pricing
A. A formal agreement (cartel) or informal agreement among competitors to strict supply
and benefit from the resulting high price
B. See trustbusters have got better detecting cartels and bolder punishing them incentives
C. Inequality and the monopolies of unfettered techno markets
D. Teddy Roosevelt takes on the trusts
Unit III. Review A formal agreement to manipulate price to maximize profitIV. Price Leadership
A. A major player leads the way and others follow GM was a price leader
until foreign competition made their market share too small to lead
B. See Price- Leadership Under Oligopoly
Unit IV. Review A major player leads the way and others follow
Free Books from When
Oligopolies Ruled the Economy
Gilded Age The Mark Twain’s book on a wealthy society
Jungle, The Upton Sinclair
Knowledge in Society, The Use of Friedrich Hayek leads traditionalist liberalists
Leviathan Thomas Hobbs begins social contract discussions Muckrakers and their works
Octopus, The A Story of California. Book 1 of a
1. P > MR = MC
2. Production is not at the lowest point indicated by the AT Curve.
3. Economic profits exist and quantity is restricted.
B. Progressive oligopolies have high economic profits in spite of price decreases
brought on by high-tech efficiencies. Unit V. Review Price higher than lowest point on ATC
VI Restrictive vs. progressive oligopolies
A. Restrictive oligopolies
1. A few companies share a market creating a near monopoly situation.
2. Example: Rust Belt industries in the United States before foreign competition.
B. Progressive oligopolies
1. Technology lowers cost and improves product quality.
2. Companies must maintain technological base to survive.
3. Low consumer prices, high product quality, and monopoly profits exist simultaneously.
4. As long as new product development causes growth in consumer demand, funds are
provided for R & D and capital investment requirements.
5. Examples include computer software and high-tech consumer electronics
6. Once dominant software giant determined to prove life begins again at 40 4/4/15
Unit VI. Review Technology allows for both high profits and low price
A. Oligopoly Watch
B. Read POWER ELITES IN AMERICA: OLIGOPOLY AND POLITICAL PULL
(OR, BEWARE THE REGULATORY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX), By Sam Wells
for a conservative view for Monopoly development from Human Freedom and
the Laissez-Faire Republic
C. King On Knowledge, Power and Unchecked and Unbalances - Audio
D. Big banks are operating as an 'oligopoly Video
E. POWER ELITES & MONOPOLY POWER for a conservative view of monopoly power.
Interestingly, I couldn't find much pro antitrust material. Reason-our competitive world.
F. Listen to The Limits of Power Bill Moyers sits down with history and international relations expert and
former US Army Colonel Andrew J. Bacevich who identifies three major problems facing our
democracy: the crises of economy, government and militarism, and calls for a redefinition of the
American way of life.
G. Planned Obsolescence Disguised as Innovation, Oligopoly Disguised as a Free Market, and the Enrichment of Oligarchs
H. Robber Barons Who Built America
I. See Progressive Era 15 min. video
is used by oligopolies
to model their behavior.
A. Econ Concepts in 60 Seconds Video on Oligopolies and Game Theory
and Dominate Strategy
1. Dominant Strategy
2. Nash Equilibrium
3. Golden Balls. the Weirdest Split or Steal Ever!
4. Taking a Closer Look at Golden Balls
1. The Prisoners Dilemma #1 Prisoner's Dilemma Game from Bryn Mawr College
2. Game Theory The Meeting Game
3. Goldon Bollocks is a You Tube game theory game.
4. A Money Game
5. Lions And Lambs: Can You Solve This Classic Game Theory Puzzle?
Advanced Game Theory Materials from materials from Wikipedia
|Topics in game theory|
|Definitions||Normal form game · Extensive form game · Cooperative game · Information set · Preference|
|Equilibrium concepts||Nash equilibrium · Subgame perfection · Bayes-Nash · Trembling hand · Correlated equilibrium · Sequential equilibrium · Quasi-perfect equilibrium · Evolutionarily stable strategy|
|Strategies||Dominant strategies · Mixed strategy · Grim trigger · Tit for tat|
|Classes of games||Symmetric game · Perfect information · Dynamic game · Repeated game · Signaling game · Cheap talk · Zero-sum game · Mechanism design|
|Games||Prisoner's dilemma · Coordination game · Chicken · Battle of the sexes · Stag hunt · Matching pennies · Ultimatum game · Minority game · Rock, Paper, Scissors · Pirate game · Dictator game · Public goods game|
|Theorems||Minimax theorem · Purification theorems · Folk theorem · Revelation principle · Arrow's Theorem|
|Related topics||Mathematics · Economics · Behavioral economics · Evolutionary game theory · Population genetics · Behavioral ecology · Adaptive dynamics · List of game theorists|
grades and careers.
Three Presidents and the Crisis of America Superpower,
by Zbigniew Brzezinski, 6 pages, or
Aristocracy, Fortune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush,
by Kevin Phillips 5 pages, or
Don't Know Much About History
Everything You Need To Know About American History But Never Learned
5 pages, by Kenneth C. Davis
Chapter 26 Class
|Table of Contents|
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