Chapter 22   Analyzing Profit

 I. Introduction
II. Demand Determines Marginal Revenue.
III. Maximizing Profit Using Marginal Analysis
IV. Maximizing Profit With Total Revenue & Cost 
V. Minimizing a Short- Run Loss, Short-Run Close Down
VI. Economies and Diseconomies of Scale  Affect Profit
VII Long-Run Costs
VIII. Predicting profit with break-even analysis    
IX. Is U.S. Free Enterprise Working

 I. Introduction

    A. Profit equals total revenue minus total costs.
    B. Understanding profit requires bringing
         revenue and costs together.
    C. Total profit and profit on the margin will be

 II. Demand Determines Marginal Revenue.
     A. Marginal revenue (MR) is the change in
         total revenue which is received from selling
         one more unit. 
     B. Demand may be thought of as average
         revenue with what is happening on the
         margin an indication of what is happening
         to the average.
     C. When product demand is downsloping,
          marginal revenue is below demand
          indicating the average price received falls
          as quantity increases.
     D. Imperfect Competition MR Less Than Demand


Many Seek an Advantage
Rent is considered excess profit.


   E. The special case of horizontal
      perfectly elastic demand will
      be explored in chapter 23.
Demand Schedule    
Price Quantity Total Revenue Marginal Revenue
5 0 0  
4 1 4 4
3 2 6 2
2 3 6 0
1 4 4 -2
At high prices, demand is inelastic, lowering price increases total revenue as marginal revenue is positive.

At medium prices, unitary elasticity means no change in total revenue as price is changed.  

At low prices, demand is elastic, lowering price decreases total revenue as marginal revenue is negative.

III. Maximizing profit using marginal analysis
A. Selling quantity Q will maximize profit.
       B. At quantities below optimum point Q, MR exceeds MC
           and increasing quantity sold will increase total profit.
       C. At quantities above point Q, MC exceeds MR and an
            increase in quantity sold will decrease total profit.
       D. Maximum profit results when MR = MC
E. To find total revenue (TR) draw a perpendicular line
            from the intersection of MR and MC to the quantity
            axis. Then extend the line up to the demand curve 
            and over to the y-axis. The resulting rectangle is 
            P x Q which equals total revenue.
       F. To find TC draw a line from the intersection of the
           perpendicular and ATC to the y-axis. The resulting
           rectangle is ATC x Q which is
            total costs.
       G. The resulting top rectangle is TR-TC. It is total profit.
IV. Maximizing profit with total analysis of revenue & cost

      Total Revenue = Price x Quantity

      Total Costs = Total Fixed Costs + Total Variable Costs

      Total Profit = Total Revenue - Total Costs

      Maximum profit is where the vertical distance between
      TR and TC is the longest.

V. Minimizing a short- run loss
    versus a short- run close down

        A. TR1 is making a profit.

     B. TR2 is paying all variable costs and making some 
          contribution to fixed costs. Cash flow may be 
          positive as fixed costs such as depreciation, 
          though an expense, have been paid. This level 
          of total revenue is all that is necessary to continue 
          in business during the short run.

     C. TR3 is not covering all variable costs and not 
          contributing to fixed costs. This situation requires 
          that the firm shut down very quickly in the short run
          as each unit produced adds to total loss.

Econ Concepts Video in in 60 Seconds,
The Shut Down Rule

Editors Note: Video uses marginal analysis while this analysis uses total analysis.

Our Free Internet Libraries improve grades and careers.



US adjusted to maximize profit by becoming a lean production machine.

The Economist Magazine 5/4/13


VI. Economies and Disecon-
     omies of Scale  Affect Profit.
     A. Companies try to maximize profits by designing 
           production facilities that increase the number of 
           units produced before the diseconomies of scale
           begin to rapidly increase costs.

      B. Flexible production lines, designed by the 
          Japanese and being used by companies such as
          General Motors, allow for producing different 
          product models and even different products 
          without substantially changing a production 
          line's configuration. These procedures have
          become a popular method of increasing a
          plant's economies of scale.


VII Long-Run Costs 
Long-run average total costs are
         the horizontal summation of ever
         larger short-run average total
Sustainable growth of the U.S and Incremental Capital Output Rati

VIII. Predicting profit with break-even analysis
A. Darin Jones has decided to open a  fully automated  car wash with  
               Linda Smith, a friend from college. Speedy Car Wash would be fully
               automated with annual fixed charges for costs such as depreciation 
               and rent amounting to $100,000. Variable costs such as labor were
               expected to be $2.00 per vehicle washed. Price was expected to
               average $7.00 per vehicle and they plan to wash 30,000 cars per year.
               The expected first-year profit for Speedy Car Wash would be calculated
               as follows.

         B.  Total Profit = Total Revenue - Total Costs
                                = P x Q - ( TFC + TVC)
                                = P x Q - TFC + VC/unit X Q
                                = ($7/u) X 30,000u - ($100,000 + $2 X 30,000u)
                                = $210,000 - ($100,000 + $60,000) = $50,000
         C. Oil Shale Production, Breakeven and Marginal Costs,  Moving the Goalposts


Practice Quiz

Amosweb Practice Test by Specific Topic 
chose production, answers provided.


The Dark Side of
 Thomas Jefferson

A new portrait of the founding father challenges the long-held perception
of Thomas Jefferson
as a benevolent slaveholder.

... "The very existence of slavery in the era of the American Revolution presents a paradox, and we have largely been content to leave it at that, since a paradox can offer a comforting state of moral suspended animation. Jefferson animates the paradox. And by looking closely at Monticello, we can see the process by which he rationalized an abomination to the point where an absolute moral reversal was reached and he made slavery fit into America’s national enterprise."...

"The critical turning point in Jefferson’s thinking may well have come in 1792. As Jefferson was counting up the agricultural profits and losses of his plantation in a letter to President Washington that year, it occurred to him that there was a phenomenon he had perceived at Monticello but never actually measured. He proceeded to calculate it in a barely legible, scribbled note in the middle of a page, enclosed in brackets. What Jefferson set out clearly for the first time was that he was making a 4 percent profit every year on the birth of black children. The enslaved were yielding him a bonanza, a perpetual human dividend at compound interest. Jefferson wrote, “I allow nothing for losses by death, but, on the contrary, shall presently take credit four per per annum, for their increase over and above keeping up their own numbers.”  His plantation was producing inexhaustible human assets. The percentage was predictable."

We can be forgiven if we interrogate Jefferson posthumously about slavery. It is not judging him by today’s standards to do so. Many people of his own time, taking Jefferson at his word and seeing him as the embodiment of the country’s highest ideals, appealed to him. When he evaded and rationalized, his admirers were frustrated and mystified; it felt like praying to a stone. The Virginia abolitionist Moncure Conway, noting Jefferson’s enduring reputation as a would-be emancipator, remarked scornfully, 'Never did a man achieve “Never did a man achieve mo re fame for what he did not 
do.' ”


Thomas Jefferson Illustration


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