Chapter 1 Economics Defined
I. Basic Terms
           
II. Economic Models
 1 Video   
III. United States Economic Goals
1 Video
IV. Economic Disciplines 4 Videos 

 

V. Why Economist Disagree Video
VI. Sundry Materials 
2 Videos  updated 9/02/16
See One-page readings in U.S. Political Economy
Free Economics Books, and Economics Video Lectures


About 1-page per chapter
Macro Test Review 1
Macro Test Review 2
Macro Test Review 3
 

About 1-2 pages per chapter
Micro Test Review 1 
Micro Test Review 2  
Micro Test Review 3

Editors Notes
Math Review short math review of basic dynamic for economics from R. L. Reynolds, Boise State
Macro Review video 11 min is for those taking a comprehensive exam.

Election Issues 2016 information for discussion, reports, and projects
This chapter contains 3 brief videos plus a one-hour podcast.     
Please 

 I. Basic Terms
    
   A. Economics is the social science concerned with the use of scarce resources
          like land and labor to fulfill unlimited human wants.
     B
. Resources are the inputs, want satisfaction is the output 
     
C. Key Concepts for understanding and analysis
     
   1. Scarcity of resources results in the need for choices by participants.
         2. Purposeful behavior by
participants (buyers and sellers) is exhibited
             to enhance their own rational self interest.
         3. Marginal analysis where the change in benefit received is balanced with
             the change in cost is a common purposeful behavior.
         4. Fallacy of composition: applying to the whole that which is true for a part
             without adequate proof. 1 and 3 are odd numbers, so four is odd number.
             
This fallacy is the basis of police profiling.
         5.
Fallacy of division:
This is the assumption that if something is true for the
             whole then it must be true for its parts. The absolutely worst abuse here
              involves inferring from an average that all elements are average.
         6. Post hoc fallacy: Assumption that correlation proves causation.  
             This is related to the concept in law of circumstantial evidence.
         7. Cum Hoc Fallacy :simultaneous correlations while post hoc refers
             to sequential correlations.  
    D. Economic methodology 
         1. Positive economics 
             a. What something is 
             b. Objective, can be measured
             c. Example: measuring disposable personal income which is an 
                 individual's salary after taxes
             d. A Theorem on the Methodology of  Positive Economics
         2. Normative economics
             a. What something ought to be 
             b. Subjective, difficult to measure 
             c. Requires value judgments by citizens, Political Action Committees (PAC's),
                 politicians, economists, etc.
             d. Examples: should the minimum wage be increased, should defense spending
                 increase and social spending be lowered
         3. Descriptive economics
             a. Looking at the real-world to develop Economic Theory
             b. Economic Theory
                 1. Generalizations concerning economic behavior based upon real-world
                     observations, empirical by nature
                 2. Economic theories are objective "positive economics"
                 3. Assumes behavior is rational and economic (self-serving)
                 4. Example: as the price of a product increases, consumers tend to buy less
             c. Economic Policy
                 1. Application of economic theory to solve economic problems
                 2. Economic policies are subjective, "normative economics".
                 3. How society makes economic choices such as in the 1980's when
                     a. spending for the elderly (Social Security) increased 
                     b. spending for children (Head Start) decreased 1234

 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Politics is a battle between Positive Economics and Normative economics which ends with economic policy. Opinions on political economy questions like those depicted by 2016 Election Issues in One-Page will be enhanced by studying economics.

   II. Economic Models
       
A. Definition
           
1. Simplified generalizations to represent of real-world economic activity
           2. Requires Ceteris Paribus: Latin for holding other economic variables constant
               See
Ceteris Paribus Trap
       B. Designing Models
           1. Models may be quantities or qualitative
           2. Economic Models
3 minute video
          
3. Three Pitfalls to model analysis 
              
a. Restrictive, unrealistic assumptions 
              
b. Omitted details  
              
c. Are economic models falsifiable?
         
4. Model representations are not always correct
               a. Are economic models falsifiable?
              
b. Pfleiderer on The Misuse of Economic Models 1 hour podcast

               c. Models such as the Production Possibility Curve chapter 2 and supply
                   and demand, chapter 3, explained in the next chapter provide a simplified
                   description of how some aspect of an economy works.
              
d. Beware of economic textbooks
11/30/14
          

III. United States Economic Goals
      
A. Employment Act of 1946 set goals in response to a
           Soviet 5-year economic plans.
      B. Humphrey Hawkins Act of 1978 added goals.
          1. Economic growth
          2. Full employment of all economic resources
          3. Price stability (low inflation)
          4. Positive balance of payments (international flow of dollars)
          5. Economic freedom
          6. Equitable distribution of income
          7. Economic security (if you have A through F, you have G)
     C. 2016 Economic Report of the President gives the President's annual
          view on our achieving these goals. Video 1 hr. 27 min. on 2014 report
Please 

IV. Important Economic Disciplines

 
 

Economic Policies have improved TV's, made them a necessity, even on a phone. Is your watch next?

As a kid in the 1950's we didn't have a TV so I only saw one when I visited my cousin. Eventually my dad realized they wouldn't destroy education and we got a 12 inch set.

Macroeconomics1
is the study of  total economic activity.

Microeconomics2 
 is the study of individual segments
 of the economy.

Macro and Micro are 
Applied as Follows

Sources of Current Economic Information

Macro Activity Micro Activity Schools of Economic Thought
 and Methodology
2016 Economic Trends Cleveland FED
1. Inflation rate 1. A product's price Econometricians Economicpopulist.org/ Articles, Videos
2. Economic growth 2. Pollution Behavioral Economists
Behavioral Economics? 4 min Video
Regional Economist and Economic Synopses
FRED down load FED data St. Louis FED
3. Total employment 3. Poverty International Economics Library of Economic Liberty Much Stuff
4. The  business cycle 4. A competitive market Labor Economics Center for Economic and Policy Research
ACDC Introduction to Macro 1:38 Video  What is Microeconomics 1:54 Video Public Economics U.S. Political Economy one-page on varied topics
1  Wiki explanation is extensive, for now, the first few paragraphs are sufficient.

2 Wiki explanation is extensive, for now, the first paragraph is sufficient.

Financial Economics textbooksfree.org/ much free stuff

V.
Why Economist Disagree? 1 hour 8 minutes video

VI. Sundry Materials    
      A.
Economics Glossary from Amosweb 
    
  B. Video Review 9.08 Video
   
   C. Outside Reading
     
    1. Is economics a science?
         
2. Economics is more like history than physics
         
3. Hopium economics
          
4. Can economics be ethical?
     
D.
The History of Economics 9 minute Video Adam Smith, David Ricardo,
          John Stuart Mill, William Stanley Jevons, Alfred Marshall and
          Lord John Maynard Keynes are considered. 

     
E. The Assent of Money: A Financial History of World 4 hour Video
   
 
 F.
Economists Do It With Models is an interesting blog
 

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