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Chapter 13 Money, Banking and the Creation of Money

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  I. Functions of money 
     A. Medium of exchange: facilitate exchange eliminating barter which requires people
          with mutually needs.
     B. Standard of value: allows for the pricing of heterogeneous goods.
     C. Store of value: maintains value and provides liquidity so extra spending power is
          available as needed.
     D. Standard of deferred payment: makes credit contracts possible so credit 
          transactions are possible.

II. The supply and demand for money
      A. Three categories of the supply of money
           1. M1 = Currency, coins, and demand deposits (checking accounts). 
           2. M2 = M1 plus near monies such as small time deposits (savings 
               accounts) and short-term government securities. 
           3. M3 = M2 plus large time deposits (over $100,000)
      B. What backs the dollar?
           1. In 1971 President Nixon took the U.S. off a partial gold standard. See
The Gold Reserve Act 
           2. It is a debt of the federal government.
           3. Backed by faith in the government's ability to control inflation.
           4. Value is determined by acceptability (it is legal tender and scarce).
           5. It's fiat (by decree of the government) money.
               a. Fiat money's first appearanced in the U.S. when Congress issued Continental currency

                   with no gold backing  and Gresham's Law (bad money chases good) caused it to
                  disappear after the war. State issued their own money.
               b. Greenbacks (demand notes on the Treasury) that were green in color were issued as legal
                   tender during the Civil War.
               c. An intermittent return to
Gold Standard (only gold is money) followed although the U.S.
                   left gold for good in 1971as high inflation caused a run on gold that the U.S. Treasury
                   could not satisfy.             
           6. Coins have little intrinsic value (a small % of face value) so they are called
               token money.
           7. Commodity money such as tobacco used as money in the Virginia colony
               has intrinsic value of its own.
Types of money - wiki  

 Continental Currency



















Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

A 50,000,000 (50 million) mark banknote from 1923 Germany 


C. History
     1  Brief History of Money
Or, how we learned to stop worrying
         and embrace the abstraction 

     2. 300 Years-of-financial-crises-1620-1920

     3. Gold Timeline

     4. The continental currency crisis of 1779 and today's European
          debt crisis  4/11/14

     5. Central bank crisis management during wall streets first crash
         in 1792  5/9/14

The  Slump that Shaped Modern Finance The Economist 4/12/14

Infographic-History of U.S. Money

     8. History of the Gold Standard

    9. History of Money


Source The Economist   4/5/14

     C. The Demand for Money 
1. Transaction D, Dt
, results because people hold money, often in a money market
               account, to use as a medium of exchange.
          2. Asset Demand, Da, results because people accumulate money, often held in an
              investment account, to buy assets.
          3. The demand for money Dm= D t + Da
          4. Interest rates are set in the money market.

           5.  For more information visit Demand for money - Wiki
III. Maintaining money's value requires
       A. A sound fiscal policy (a reasonable federal debt)
       B. A sound monetary policy (not using inflation to pay the federal debt)
IV. United States private banking system
      A. Two kinds of banks
          1. Commercial banks offer demand deposits (checking accounts)
          2. Savings and loan associations used to specialize in time deposits (saving accounts)
              and home mortgages. Now, because of deregulation during the early 1980's, they
              are similar to commercial banks. 
     B. Federal deregulation contributed to banking difficulties in the 1980's.
     C. Visit
History provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis for a time line of the U.S.
          banking System. Be sure to point at each date to see what happens during that period.

A Brief History of U S Banking Problems  
The Essence of Money, a Medieval Tale (7:36) provide a little more interesting history.




AP Macroeconomics
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VI. The Federal Reserve System    
A. Organization Chart






1. Board of Governors oversee the Federal Reserve System
             a. Seven governors
             b. Governors are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
             c. The chair
is appointed by the President for a four-year term.
                 1)  To foster independence, the term does not coincide with the President's
                   2) Other board members are appointed to 14-year terms on a staggered
                       basis to insure an experienced board.
             2. Federal Open Market Committee
                 a. Membership consists of the Board of Governors and 5 of the 12 Federal
                     Reserve bank
presidents with the N.Y. president always a member 
N.Y. City is the financial center for U.S. international trade.
                 b. The Committee tries to affect interest rates by affecting the supply of
                     money by buying and selling U.S. government bonds (See Chapter 15).
             3. Federal Advisory Council 12 prominent commercial bankers, one from
                 each district, who advise the Board of Governors
             4. Twelve Federal Reserve Banks 
a. The United States is divided into 12 homogenous districts and each 
                     has its own bank
                 b. Bank for the federal government
                 c. Bank for member banks
                 d. Graphic is complements of the Board of Governors of the Federal
                     Reserve System.
            5. Member commercial banks
            6. Nonmember commercial banks and thrifts are regulated by other
                government agencies.
Federal Open Market Committee meeting at the Federal Reserve in Washington, DC




Note: During the later part of the Great Depression, the Fed tightened too soon(at the eight year mark) and the recession returned. Then WWII came along and government spending finally ended the Great Depression.



       B. Functions of the Federal Reserve 
            1. Regulate the money supply
            3. Oversea the financial system
            4. Check collection and clearing
            5. Fiscal agent for the government
            6. Supervise (audit) member banks 
            7. Hold reserves (deposits) for member banks
            8. Compile economic statistics such as the 2010
BeigeBook, which is
a quarterly summary of each districts' recent economic activity.
            9. Many Federal Reserve publications are free.
The Federal Reserve System Purposes and Functions
D. History
ANDREW JACKSON took on the eastern bankers, vetoed 
                 the charter extension of the Second Bank of the United States
                 because he felt it had excessive power over farmers.
2. THEODORE ROOSEVELT took on the corporate monopoly
                 Trusts that control railroad rates and routes and thus destroyed
                 small towns and farms. 
             3. Nixon Shock inflationary pressure and French President De Gaulle
                 force the US to stops the convertibility of dollars to gold.
             4. A Century of U.S. Banking: Fall 2013 Ben Bernanke

             5. Federal-reserve-was-created-100-years-ago-this-is-how-it-happened 12/21/13
             6. Cooperation, conflict and the emergence of a modern federal reserve 4/17/14

E.  Current Events Readings
Philadelphia Reflections: Whither, Federal Reserve? is a well
                 done, concise history of banking in the United States.
The Real Threat to Fed Independence Henry Kaufman, Wall 
                 Street Journal. The financial giant cuts the industry no slack.
             3. The
Current Events Internet Library has many up-to-date economic






Figure of 'Federal Reserve Distributions to the U.S. Treasury, 2004-2013'. Bar chart. Federal Reserve distributions to the Treasury displayed annually: 2004, $18.1 billion; 2005, $21.5 billion; 2006, $29.1 billion; 2007, $34.6 billion; 2008, $31.7 billion; 2009, $47.4 billion; 2010, $79.3 billion; 2011, $75.4 billion; 2012, $88.4 billion; 2013, $77.7 billion.Profit isn't usually listed as a function of the FED but $325 from 20010 -13 isn't chicken feed.



VII. Recent Developments
        A. Banks and thrifts are the only institutions whose checking accounts are not
             restricted as to check size and number
            1. The
Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989
                liberalized banking laws, caused a declined in their importance although 
                reforms resulting from the Great Recession of 2008 cold change this.
            2. Consolidation has caused their numbers to decline and their size to increase.
            3. Many bank/thrift services are now performed by insurance companies, 
                pension, and securities companies.
        B. Globalization of financial markets.
C. Some politicians think the Federal Reserve system is too independent.   
Congress Is Politicizing the Fed Jan 25, 2010
             2. Central bank independence versus inflation.
                 This often cited
  [49] research published by Alesina and Summers (1993)[50]
                      is used to show why it is important for a nation's central bank (i.e.-monetary
                 authority) to have a high level of independence. This chart shows a clear
                 trend towards a lower inflation rate as the independence of the central bank
                 increases. The generally agreed upon reason independence leads to lower
                 inflation is that politicians have a tendency to create too much money if given
                 the opportunity to do it.
[50] The Federal Reserve System in the United States
                 is generally regarded as one of the more independent central banks.


VIII. The fractional reserve system and the creation of money
         A. Commercial banks are required to keep a reserve (cash) of about 12% of their
              demand deposits (checking accounts) at their bank or on deposit with the 
              Federal Reserve (required reserves). The remainder, (Excess Reserves)  
              may be loaned out even though they support deposits.
         B. Money is created by these loans as long as the demand deposits (DD) created
              by them stay within the banking system, that is, the money loaned is redeposit
              as a DD into a bank within the system. The banks owe the demand deposits
              created by the loans to each other. These inter-brain debts  are canceled with
              a bookkeeping entry. It should be pointed out that the demand deposits 
              created by such loans are spent, and goods transferred, just as if the 
              transaction involved   currency.
         C. Example: Bank A has $50,000 in demand deposits. A reserve requirement of 
             10% would yield required reserves of .10 x $50,000 = $5,000. If Bank A 
              had $7,000 in reserve, it could loan up to $2,000 in the form of demand 
              deposits. Suppose Bank B does exactly the same with both banks' customers
              depositing their DD in the other bank. Banks would owe cashed checks to 
              each other, would cancel interbank debts, and money  has been created.
         D. The system works in reverse with money destroyed if reserves leave the system.
         E. Required reserves, reserves not loaned, and loans of cash (reserves) represent
              a leakage which eventually stops money supply growth.
monetary-base-laffer-wsj-2009Source and prediction of coming inflation A. Laffer, 6/11/14


 IX. The monetary multiplier
       A. An infusion of reserves into the system by the Treasury as directed by the 
           Federal Reserve can be loaned a number of times by the commercial 
           banking system. For example, the Federal Reserve may buy a $100 
           Treasury bond from Ms. A who deposits the Federal Reserve check
           (reserves) into Bank A. 
       B. Bank A's new DD of $100 requires them to keep $10 (10%) in reserve
            leaving $90 excess to loan to Mr. B who deposits it in Bank B.
       C. Bank B needs to keep only $9 ($90 x .1) in reserve and may loan out $81. 
       D. This process continues and as long as the demand deposits being created
            by the loans stay within the commercial 
            banking system, interbank debts are canceled and money has been created
       E. Monetary multiplier (M) sets the upper limit of the expansion
           1. R = reserve requirement = 10% = .1
           2. M = 1/R = 1/.1 = 10
       F. In the above example the total amount of DD created beginning with Bank
           A's $90 in excess reserves would equal 
           Excess Reserves x M = $90 x 10 = $900. If the $100 infusion by the 
           Federal Reserve is included, the increase is 10 x 100 = $1,000.
       G. Visit
The Banking System and the Money Multiplier from Jay Kaplan
            of the University of Colorado at Boulder for more information.
 X. Additional reading
Money creation - Wikipedia     
   2. Recollections of Pine Gulch
reffeconomics reviews money.
Banks Create Money
         4. The (2nd) Deleveraging: What Economists Need to Know of Money Creation Process
         5. A Brief History of U S Banking Problems 

Dirk-bezemer-the-post-bubble-economy is a four part video explaining
             credit evolution. 7/6/13

9-page summer read for historical context in understanding the history
    of monetary policy: the famous Wizard of Oz book is economic allegory/satire
    on who will create US money: federal government as "money" or a central bank
    as "debt." This issue was the foundation for the "Greenback Party,"
             "Populist Party," "free silver," and William Jennings Bryan's three
              presidential campaigns (and "Cross of Gold" speech):
 or a film version
   of this allegory
The Secret of Oz can be
viewed online (winner of two 2010 international Best Documentary awards).
7. The Nixon Shock
from Business Week 8/14/11
How Nixon stopped backing the dollar with gold and changed global finance,
              a 40-year-old decision that still echoes in Greece, Ireland, and the U.S.
8. Buttonwood, Forty yeas on from 8/11 of Economist Magazine
         9. Visual Guide To The Federal Reserve B. Ritholtz (furzy mouse) why we have a Fed... !

A brief history of U S dollar debasement?
Phony Currency Wars












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source econintersect.com/

Some Central Banks Are Easing to Create Growth,

Some Are Not  

from http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/2013/04/mid-week-pm-reads-15/


Source econintersect.com 2014/09/28/